A Tradition of Music Appreciation

A Tradition of Music Appreciation

In my first and second articles, I traced the history of music appreciation in the PNEU from its commencement in 1905 all the way to 1924, the year after Charlotte Mason’s death. I showed how a variety of music programme authors influenced how music appreciation was conducted, and I also showed the impact of technology, such as the gramophone. In this article I will continue the story, once again providing all of the historical music programmes written on Handel, this time from 1925 through 1933. I will also share a music programme from 1969.

Before I proceed any further, however, I want to make sure that my readers understand that music programmes in the PNEU followed a different numbering scheme from the curriculum programmes. The first PNEU curriculum programme was released in 1892, and the programme for each subsequent term was numbered consecutively. In the Charlotte Mason Digital Collection (CMDC), we have access to the curriculum programmes numbered 90 through 127, for the years 1921 to 1933. However, music programmes did not appear until 1905. The first music programme began a separate consecutive numbering scheme. Typically the curriculum programmes included a reference under Music Appreciation to a music programme in The Parents’ Review. The music programme was identified either by its number or by its term. In 1921, curriculum Programme 90 referred to Music Programme 50.

Cedric Glover continued writing music programmes for the first two years after Miss Mason’s death in January 1923. Without Miss Mason’s personal involvement, the tradition of music appreciation appeared to go on as usual. However, in September 1924, the last music programme authored by Mr. Glover appeared in The Parents’ Review. Then, for the first time, in 1925, Programmes 102 through 105 did not include a reference to The Parents’ Review under Music Appreciation. Was there no one writing music programmes?

More Books (1925-1927)

The seven terms after Mr. Glover’s last article in The Parents’ Review seemed to be a time of transition. Alice Mary Henderson’s article from Music Programme 28 (Mendelssohn) was recycled for Music Programme 61 (Programme 101), but supplemented with a new listing of compositions to be studied (Henderson, 1925, pp. 56-65).

That same year, Cedric Glover published a book entitled The Term’s Music with the following author’s note:

The matter contained in this book has appeared in a series of articles in the “Parents’ Review.” It is now reproduced, with certain additions and alterations, by the courtesy of the Editor of that periodical, to whom the author tenders his grateful acknowledgments. (Glover, 1925, p.vi)

A review of his book appeared in The Parents’ Review that year. The introduction gave a tremendous amount of information on the components of a music appreciation lesson. This introduction can be viewed, along with a sample chapter on Handel, at Miss Mason’s Music. Glover held the view that “people cannot be taught to appreciate good music, unless they have first learnt to discriminate between good music and bad”(C. Glover, 1925, p. 2). He provided more explanation on the necessity of learning to appreciate music properly:

The generality of mankind still fails to distinguish between the music itself and the performance of the music, that is between the art and the craft. (p. 4)

…it must be the aim of our instruction to train the pupil to direct his judgment and discrimination on music and to lay the foundations of a standard of right and wrong, which will enable him to accept what is good and reject what is worthless, overriding the unreliable response of the emotions, which are not concerned with values at all. (p. 8)

…generally speaking it is true to say that the appeal of shape and form should be assigned to the intellect, whereas the appeal of rhythm and the effect of climax are largely emotional. (p. 8)

He made the following curious statement:

Those pupils, who are learning instruments, should be encouraged to get up little concerts devoted to the works of the term’s composer, illustrating possibly some special phase of his work; as a rule the music set in the syllabus should be avoided. A word of warning is perhaps necessary in this connection; the syllabus itself is not of course a carefully balanced concert programme, and must never be performed straight through as such. (pp. 8-9)

Did he disagree with the other music programme authors? Should children avoid playing the pieces listed in his programmes? Evidently so, if the aim is to actually put on a small concert.

The Term’s Music contained chapters on the following composers: Handel, Bach, Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert, Schumann, Brahms, Wagner, Grieg, Moussorgsky and Borodin, Dvořák, and Debussy. “The volume close[d] with a list of suitable questions on each term’s work” (PNEU, 1925, p. 591). Megan Elizabeth Hoyt included these exam questions in her book A Touch of the Infinite. Glover’s book was referred to in the programmes for many of the terms over the next five years. In fact, for six of those terms there were no music appreciation articles at all in The Parents’ Review.

In 1925 Musical Groundwork by F. H. Shera, an aural training book, was first listed under Music Appreciation in Programme 102 (Music Programme 62), accompanied by page numbers. Mr. Glover had previously included this book in his music programmes.

Other than listings of sheet music by Schumann (Music Programme 64) and Mozart (Music Programme 65), there were no articles in The Parents’ Review for Music Programmes 62-65. The assumption was that teachers and students were using The Term’s Music in place of these, as this book was first mentioned in Programme 102.

Later in 1925 The Listener’s Guide to Music was superseded in Form IV by Music and Its Story by R. T. White in Programme 103 (Music Programme 63). Music and Its Story was a book on musical history just published in 1924. Five years after that, beginning with Programme 119, it was also used in Form III.

In January 1926 a gramophone club was suggested in order to share the cost of the records (PNEU, 1926, p. 66). Soon afterwards the “club was formed and was found most helpful. The parcel of records was looked forward to eagerly, particularly by those in home schoolrooms in the country” (Hugman, 1952, p. 135). The families were “divided geographically into groups of ten, and each member [kept] a box of records for a full week, using them as much as possible” (PNEU, 1927a, p. 62). Listings of the records to be circulated were published in The Parents’ Review for Music Programmes 66 and 67.

Cedric Glover seemed to have been aware of these developments. He presented his paper on “Music” at the PNEU Meeting in 1926, and in this paper he commented on how quickly the industry had developed:

…of recent years the astonishing popularity of the gramophone and of wireless broadcasting has materially contributed to the propagation of good music. (C. Glover, 1926, p. 245)

In his paper, he “tried to show that liking [wa]s only an incidental in the appreciation of music” (p. 249). The appreciation of music, separate from acquiring technical skill, had more recently gained attention:

Music was for long considered to be merely a vehicle for the display of technical virtuosity, or, at best, the means whereby an artist could show his powers of interpretation. It is only of recent years that it has gradually dawned upon us that music has an independent existence and can be known and loved for itself. (p. 246)

He also confirmed an inference I had made from reading his music programmes. I suspected that the intention was for students to not only listen to music but to also learn about composers. Glover wrote:

It is the critical faculty which requires stimulation, allied with a lively curiosity, manifesting itself in a desire to know all about each individual composer and the interaction of one composer on another. (pp. 246-247)

He issued a warning when dealing with modern works of music:

…it is notoriously dangerous to dogmatize about the value of a new work—musical history is littered with the most glaring errors of judgment: there are always two factions, one to shower indiscriminate praise on novelty, the other to decry. It is best on the whole to reserve judgment, merely pointing out obvious virtues or shortcomings. (p. 249)

His paper ended by laying out a plan:

1) “create a better general atmosphere towards music” (p. 249);

2) “ensure… children… receive as much rudimentary instruction in music as they do in literature” (p. 249);

3) “attempt to change the attitude of democracy towards music” (p.249).

Music will then assume its true and rightful function in the world: it will appear as the most accessible medium for the apprehension of eternal beauty, as a stimulating and vital force fulfilling a far higher and more important rôle than mere pleasure giving, as one of the most enobling and spiritualising forces which we possess and a bond of absorbing interest between man and man. (p. 250)

But as valuable as Glover’s book was, The Term’s Music was not to be the permanent manual for music appreciation in the PNEU. At first, it was supplemented by fresh teaching from the House of Education, and then in 1933 it was completely replaced.

Leaving a Legacy (1927-1953)

Miss Katherine Emma Limbert, a resident House of Education teacher, was the person who would fill the void left by Cedric Glover (PNEU, 1928, p. 78).

Miss Limbert grew up in the musical atmosphere of Victorian London. She was a member of a well-known choir that visited churches and concert halls and she took part in Dr. Augustus Mann’s famous concerts in the Crystal Palace. (PNEU, 1952, p. 316)

Later, at the House of Education, Ambleside, where she became Lecturer in Music, she found great satisfaction in Charlotte Mason’s ‘liberal education for all’ in music and gave much help in writing for the Parents’ Review a series of studies in music appreciation for the P.U.S. programmes. (p. 316)

1922 Scale How
From left to right: Miss Kitching, Miss Mason, Lady Baden Powell, Miss Parish (behind), Miss
Hamlyn (Guide Capt.), Unknown (standing), Miss Limbert, Lieutenant Malden and Miss Smelt

With the advent of Miss Limbert, the music programmes were no longer numbered, but identified by the term. Her first music programme for the Summer Term in 1927 paired Haydn and Chopin, perhaps for the sole purpose of comparison. A whole page of the article was dedicated to “what music was like when Haydn studied” (K. Limbert, 1927, p. 318). Similar to Mr. Glover, Miss Limbert expounded on both the composers’ lives and their music:

The method we use gives children an opportunity to hear good music by a composer chosen for the term, and it seems to fit in with Miss Mason’s teaching that they should be told something of him and the time in which he lived. (Limbert, 1945, p. 294)

Their reliance on gramophone records was evident. The “Our Work” section of The Parents’ Review was now used for listing records to be circulated in the P.U.S. Gramophone Club, and it also identified additional records that could be purchased (PNEU, 1927b, p. 343). Sources for sheet music were no longer given in a list but were mentioned in the article along with suggestions about what age of child they might be appropriate for. Any instructions for playing a piece of music seemed to be aimed towards helping the students rather than the parent or teacher. Children were encouraged to listen to the music first before making an attempt to play it. No additional books were suggested for studying Chopin and Haydn (Limbert, 1927, pp. 318-325).

In 1928 a book on music theory normally listed under the Music section was included under Music Appreciation in Programme 113, for the teacher’s use. After three terms this book, Introduction to Music by H. E. Piggott, was relegated to the Music section of the programmes only.

Handel was selected for the 1929 Spring Term. Limbert’s article again covered both his life and music (Limbert, 1929a, pp. 42-53). The Complete Book of the Great Musicians by Percy A. Scholes, which was a compilation of his first, second, and third books, was listed in Programme 113. No other books were mentioned in the article, but gramophone records were again contained in “Our Work” (PNEU, 1929a, p. 61).

The P.U.S. Gramophone Club was discontinued in 1929 due to its membership having reached over one hundred. There were several suggestions given to replace the part played by the PNEU club. Members could form their own local clubs and share records. Alternatively, they could organize a music club where they paid for a gramophone and records out of the subscription money received. The importance of the records was noted with this statement:

It was considered a disadvantage not to buy the records advised, and to keep them as a permanent possession with the books and pictures on the P.U.S. programmes. (PNEU, 1929b, p. 346)

At some point there was a plan to include “suggestions for records for the term’s music… under Musical Appreciation on the programmes” (1929b, p. 346), but that was “found inadvisable” and they continued to list them in “the articles on the term’s music, and under notices of the P.U.S. Gramophone Clubs” (1929c, p. 558). There was also an acknowledgement that the gramophone made orchestral music more accessible:

It is now possible to get excellently recorded orchestral works, which children can get to know and love in this way. (PNEU, 1929b, p. 346)

The Autumn Term 1929 featured J. S. Bach. From the very beginning of Miss Limbert’s article she warned there was much to learn about Bach:

For the more one knows of a craft oneself the better one can appreciate the great masters of that craft… But the true magnitude of Bach’s genius, with his infinite capacity for taking pains, can be but dimly apprehended until a great deal of study has been done. (Limbert, 1929b, p. 540)

An additional biography, also mentioned in the programme, which “contain[ed] much information bearing upon the works the children [we]re likely to hear” (p. 541) was strongly recommended.

She gave a little insight into the types of music being played on the radio:

In his long connection with church music, he wrote a large number of “Church Cantatas,” which are best explained as being equivalent to our anthems. He composed one for each Sunday and Festival in the year, and additional ones as well. All these are on a grand scale containing choruses, solos and recitatives appropriate to the day for which they were intended. Many of them have been heard by wireless late on Sunday afternoons, and some of the children may have listened to them. (p. 541)

She drew on the children’s previous knowledge of history in setting up the “Passion”:

One passage is given strikingly in both settings, that of Peter’s denial. Compare the two examples of the words at “he went out and sobbed bitterly.” If the children know enough of what houses and halls under the Roman rule were like it is easy to picture most of the scenes Bach describes and that one in particular. (p. 542)

There were a couple references to looking at the score:

If it is possible to take children to hear the work [“Passion”] they will understand it much better if they see the score first, to understand the sequence of the scenes… The further repetitions should then be quite clear; the beautiful phrase which is sung by the two choirs alternately is easily found by anyone who has the musical score to follow. (pp. 542-543)

Miss Limbert’s style of writing frequently encouraged personal interaction with the composer:

It is curious how little the personality counts, for it is merged in the achievements wrought by the union of a prodigious intellect with a pure and lofty spirit. There are numerous photographs of his portraits and the face is familiar to most of us. Not handsome, but shrewd, kindly, and full of power. There is a lurking twinkle in the eye and we can see evidences in the face of patience and close concentration. But it would attract little attention in a crowd, and is a face one could imagine with Victorian side whiskers, or any kind of fashion that was not wildly ostentatious. It is the face of a thinker and commands our respect, and the serenity shows a mind above pettiness. There is no glamour about him, no romance to dwell upon. His life was filled with work and domestic joys and sorrows. (1929c, pp. 597-598)

The Enjoyment of Music by A. W. Pollitt, a book covering musical form, was included in Programme 115 and all subsequent programmes in the CMDC archive for Forms V and VI. It is possible this was not the first term this book was used in the PNEU, although it is not mentioned in Miss Limbert’s earlier music programmes. The initial publication date of Pollitt’s book was 1921.

Beethoven was chosen for the Spring Term 1930. This particular term the composer fit within the period of time studied in history:

What events there were, though, during that life! When he was born, King George III. had sat upon the English throne but ten years, and the American War of Independence had not yet come to pass. The French Revolution was not to be until another twenty years had gone by. Who thought then of that mighty power, Napoleon? Trafalgar and Waterloo were yet to be fought. Beethoven was to live until they had been long over, and Napoleon exiled. His dates therefore make us think of a very stormy epoch, and we cannot wonder that such events affected the sensitive musician. (Limbert, 1930a, p. 42)

An understanding of musical history helped the students appreciate what a composer had to work with:

It must be borne in mind that with all his greatness much he wrote belonged to the manner of his time, and in that manner was much of what is to us, now, intolerable tedium, so in this way he often offends modern ears. But when we reflect upon the extraordinary influence he had upon other composers we may wonder what music would have been like by now had he never existed.(p. 44)

Just as with literature, when children are put in direct contact with composers, these great minds also can instruct them:

The sonatas form, for young students, a musical literature by themselves, and it is much to be desired that they should possess them all and play them over,—not merely as practice in sight-reading, but as a means of getting acquainted with a great mind. Much will be too difficult for the fingers probably, but that can be put aside until more progress enables the student to tackle it, and many beautiful themes can be garnered into the memory of the young player. So much, too, is there to be discovered by the young explorer without aid from anybody else. The mastery of rhythms with their interweaving, augmentation or diminution of the time-units, for one thing. Then the effect of the many striking modulations comes with much more significance when the player makes the discovery alone, and Beethoven is such a teacher! (p. 45)

Miss Limbert also encouraged comparison between various musical works, as did Mr. Glover. She sometimes suggested specific works for that purpose. She was still providing a list of gramophone records in the “Our Work” section of The Parents’ Review.

The next term (Programme 117) Cedric Glover’s book The Term’s Music fell off the list of recommended resources in the programmes.

The Summer Term 1933 music programme on Purcell encompassed quite a bit of information about his contemporaries. There was even a quote from Samuel Pepys’ diary. Miss Limbert again issued a reminder regarding why understanding musical history was necessary:

Let the children realise the limitations under which he worked and they will understand why we do not find the forms of art that Beethoven perfected—no great symphonies, no concertos. The Sonata form was emerging from the Suite, and we have a fine example of Purcell’s art in his ‘Golden Sonata’ for two violins. (Limbert, 1933a, p. 257)

Although she herself pointed out adaptations of sheet music to be used for playing modern instruments, she also thought there was a limit to how much a piece should be adapted:

On the other hand some well-meaning people have arranged some of Purcell’s tuneful pieces by adding octaves and filling up chords until they were weighty enough for a full-toned modern piano—with much pedal added, too. This seems out of focus—almost as if a delicate miniature were to be enlarged to the size of an act-drop for a theatre. We cannot all get harpsichords to play upon, but at least we can play Purcell’s music simply, neatly and rhythmically, and be content with a small tone. There is a charm in things slender and graceful as well as in those of more striking colour and greater sturdiness. (pp. 258-259)

Parents’ Review vol. 44 p. 566

Miss Limbert’s second music programme featuring Handel (for the Autumn Term 1933) contained essentially the same biographical information as her first article on him fourteen terms earlier. Gramophone records appeared in the “Our Work” section of The Parents’ Review. Many more records were suggested this time—in fact more than were needed. Selections from the “Messiah” were of course included, and some of the same records showed up from the previous listing of records, but there were also new records. Gramophone technology had come a long way:

…now that gramophone records are so tremendously improved children may learn a great deal of Handel from gramophone records alone, and they cannot do better than by hearing the excellent records now to be had. (Limbert, 1933b, p. 529)

They were still encouraged to look at the music score of the “Messiah”:

If a score is used and children are made familiar with the words, and gain some knowledge of the themes from study at the piano, they will appreciate these records all the more and prepare for full appreciation of the great work when the time arrives for them to hear it in its entirety. (Limbert, 1933b, p. 530)

Once again, children were encouraged to gain familiarity with pieces by hearing them before attempting to play them:

The Organ Concertos as duets (Aug. 2891, a and b, 2 vols, 4/- each) may be useful for Form V, and it will be interesting to discover in these volumes pieces already made familiar by hearing on the gramophone records. (Limbert, 1933b, p. 531)

Miss Limbert gave a mixture of musical history, technical advice, and guidance on studying and playing the various pieces in the second half of her article.

The following notice appeared describing Miss Limbert’s departure from the House of Education in 1929:

In December, Miss Limbert left the College to live in the South of England. She is much missed. Miss Limbert devoted her last term to training Miss Watson, an ex-student, who is carrying on the work of teaching Music and lecturing on the history and theory of Music with great zeal and devotion. (PNEU, 1930, p. 517)

Miss Limbert was the longest-running music programme author to date. Her composer selections and articles in The Parents’ Review had been used since the Summer Term in 1927. Even after leaving her post at the House of Education, she appeared to continue contributing to the music appreciation programmes. Whether she was writing new articles or her past articles were being reused was not clear. Miss Watson contributed her first music programme for the Autumn Term in 1953.

In 1951 an amazing thing occurred. There was no article by Limbert in The Parents’ Review, but the composer for the Summer Term, Vaughan Williams, wrote “A Message to P.U.S. Pupils” himself:

A small girl was once having a music lesson. Her teacher gave her a new piece to learn, which she explained was composed by a well-known musician who had lately visited the school. ‘But,’ said the little girl, in great bewilderment, ‘I thought all composers were dead.’

Have we really been taught that all composers are dead? Then indeed our art is dead. Vital art must be creative.

It has been said that we should stand in the present with one eye on the past and one on the future. Let us by all means build our house on the foundations of the great masters, but let us remember that the composers of our own time and of our own country have something to say to us which even the greatest masters of the past age cannot give us; that is the only way we can build a great future for our music.

We must not let the dead lion swallow up the living dog. (Vaughan Williams, 1951, p. 119)

The PNEU did not limit themselves to studying composers of times long gone. Some of the composers selected were still living: Elgar, Sibelius, and Stravinsky (studied alongside other Russian composers). Miss Limbert added these and others into the rotation for the first time: Tchaikovsky, César Franck, Delius, and Holst.

Miss K. E. Limbert died on November 2, 1952 at the age of 88 (PNEU, 1952, p. 316). The PNEU continued using her music programmes off and on for another nine years until 1961.

Her obituary described the intentionality of her composer selections:

This series covered twelve terms (thirty-six programmes). In order to maintain a sense of proportion, articles on each of the great masters recurred at intervals, two or three times during the series, while composers of lesser importance would be represented by only one article each. She sometimes repeated articles, making variations in the choice of gramophone records and bringing her criticism into line with the temper of the times; this she did until the present term. (PNEU, 1952, pp. 316-317)

How often did the great masters reappear? About every twelve to sixteen terms. How were composers of lesser importance chosen? There appeared to be some weight placed on English composers, but no definitive criteria were stated.

The opening of her first article featuring César Franck (Autumn Term 1930) recognized the difficulty in assigning standards:

Some people may think this composer hardly to be placed amongst the first few of famous musicians brought to the hearing of young children, for his name has not the familiarity to the multitude of that of Handel or Bach, and in the scale of values he is not always easily placed. His dates show that he is modern; he is not of yesterday, but of the day before. (Limbert, 1930b, p. 523)

The advance of radio broadcasting amplified exposure to contemporary composers like Delius and Holst (Summer Term 1946):

The names of the two composers that are selected for consideration this term must be fairly familiar to most people, whether musical or not, themselves. For the B.B.C. nowadays pervades to almost every household, and works by these men are not neglected. As the dates show, they belong definitely to yesterday. (Limbert, 1946, p. 113)

The PNEU was still studying Music Appreciation in 1969. This article on Handel, published in the 4th volume of the PNEU Journal, was reminiscent of earlier music programmes, although somewhat lacking in style and detail compared to those written by Cedric Glover and Katherine Limbert. Like Miss Cruse, Margaret Russell encouraged viewing a portrait of the composer, and she mentioned several locations where portraits or busts of Handel might be seen (Russell, 1969, pp. 195-199).

Some characteristics of Miss Limbert’s programmes:

  • Comprised of songs and instrumental works.
  • A list of at least 6 instrumental pieces and songs.
  • Available gramophone records listed, in addition to sheet music suggestions.
  • Expanded biographical and musical information connected to other composers.
  • Almost exclusively focused on a single composer: Chopin, Haydn, Schubert, Wagner, Purcell, Debussy, Handel, Tchaikovsky, Bach, Beethoven, Mendelssohn, Franck, Mozart, Schumann, Brahms, Dvořák, Elgar, Greig, Sibelius, Delius, and Holst.
  • Musical form and history included in article.
  • Advice for helping students of different abilities to choose and play compositions.
  • Listening recommended before attempting to play.

Reflections

Around the time of Miss Limbert’s death in 1952 an article by Kathleen C. Hugman, entitled “Our Music Appreciation,” was published about its history and progression over time:

Since then it has been the practice to study one composer per term, by which means a child at the end of a normal school life will be familiar with some of the music of about twenty composers. (p. 135)

Entering into relationship with these composers and their music was the aim of music appreciation in the PNEU. In her 1902 presentation on “Our Relations with Music and Art” Mrs. Glover shared the influence of headmaster Edward Thring on the study of music in schools:

He estimated rightly the refining and stimulating influence of serious classical music on those who were able and trained to appreciate it, and was greatly attracted by the idea of an art, which appealed at least as much to feeling and imagination as to the intellect. (p. 577)

In “The Works and Aims of the P.N.E.U. and Parents’ Union School” Mr. Thring was quoted as saying:

“Transmission of life from the living, through the living, to the living, is the highest definition of education.” (Alston, 1925, p. 308)

Music is just one thing we can purpose to put our children in touch with as part of the “science of relations” that Miss Mason was fond of referring to. Mr. Thring’s statement is reminiscent of what Charlotte Mason wrote in School Education:

On what does Fulness of Living depend?—What is education after all? An answer lies in the phrase—Education is the Science of Relations… What we are concerned with is the fact that we personally have relations with all that there is in the present, all that there has been in the past, and all that there will be in the future—with all above us and all about us—and that fulness of living, expansion, expression, and serviceableness, for each of us, depend upon how far we apprehend these relationships and how many of them we lay hold of. (Mason, 1989c, pp. 185-186)

Each author contributed a different flavor to their articles and music programmes in The Parents’ Review, but their programmes all aligned with the goal of “promot[ing] a wise development of those yearnings after beauty, with which all children are naturally endowed” (E. Glover, 1902, p. 575). The key elements of the method remained the same after the format was altered to focus on a single composer. I’ll provide a closer look at those key elements, along with exam questions and the components of a music appreciation lesson, in my next article when we analyze music appreciation in the PNEU.

References

Alston, C. (1925). The work and aims of the P.N.E.U. and Parents’ Union School. In The Parents’ Review, volume 36 (pp. 305-313). London: Parents’ National Educational Union.

Glover, C. (1925). The term’s music. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., Ltd.

Glover, C. (1926). Music. In The Parents’ Review, volume 37 (pp. 245-251). London: Parents’ National Educational Union.

Glover, E. (1902). Our relations with music and art. In The Parents’ Review, volume 13 (pp. 575-589). London: Parents’ National Educational Union.

Henderson, A. (1925). Felix Mendelssohn: singer of songs without words. In The Parents’ Review, volume 36 (pp. 56-65). London: Parents’ National Educational Union.

Hugman, K. (1952). Our music appreciation. In The Parents’ Review, volume 63 (pp. 134-135). London: Parents’ National Educational Union.

Limbert, K. (1927). Haydn, 1732-1809—Chopin, 1809-1849. In The Parents’ Review, volume 38 (pp. 318-325). London: Parents’ National Educational Union.

Limbert, K. (1929a). Handel, 1685-1759. In The Parents’ Review, volume 40 (pp. 42-53). London: Parents’ National Educational Union.

Limbert, K. (1929b). J. S. Bach, 1685-1750. In The Parents’ Review, volume 40 (pp. 540-547). London: Parents’ National Educational Union.

Limbert, K. (1929c). J. S. Bach, 1685-1750: part II. In The Parents’ Review, volume 40 (pp. 592-598). London: Parents’ National Educational Union.

Limbert, K. (1930a). Beethoven (I770-I827). In The Parents’ Review, volume 41 (pp. 42-53). London: Parents’ National Educational Union.

Limbert, K. (1930b). César Franck (I822-I89O). In The Parents’ Review, volume 41 (pp. 523-530). London: Parents’ National Educational Union.

Limbert, K. (1933a). Henry Purcell (I658-I695). In The Parents’ Review, volume 44 (pp. 250-262). London: Parents’ National Educational Union.

Limbert, K. (1933b). Handel, I685-I759. In The Parents’ Review, volume 44 (pp. 523-535). London: Parents’ National Educational Union.

Limbert, K. (1945). A musical brains-trust. In The Parents’ Review, volume 56 (pp. 294-296). London: Parents’ National Educational Union.

Limbert, K. (1946). Delius 1862-1934 / Holst 1874-1934. In The Parents’ Review, volume 57 (pp. 113-117). London: Parents’ National Educational Union.

Mason, C. (1989c). School education. Quarryville: Charlotte Mason Research & Supply.

PNEU. (1925). Books. In The Parents’ Review, volume 36 (pp. 591-593). London: Parents’ National Educational Union.

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PNEU. (1927a). Our work. In The Parents’ Review, volume 38 (pp. 61-67). London: Parents’ National Educational Union.

PNEU (1927b). Our work. In The Parents’ Review, volume 38 (pp. 343-344). London: Parents’ National Educational Union.

PNEU. (1928). A liberal education for all: The practical working. London: Parents’ National Educational Union.

PNEU. (1929a). Our work. In The Parents’ Review, volume 40 (p. 60-66). London: Parents’ National Educational Union.

PNEU. (1929b). Our work. In The Parents’ Review, volume 40 (pp. 345-346). London: Parents’ National Educational Union.

PNEU. (1929c). Our work. In The Parents’ Review, volume 40 (pp. 557-558). London: Parents’ National Educational Union.

PNEU. (1930). Thirty-ninth annual report, 1929-1930. In The Parents’ Review, volume 41 (p. 503-522). London: Parents’ National Educational Union.

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Russell, M. (1969). George Frideric Handel (1685-1759). In PNEU Journal, volume 4 (pp. 195-199). London: Parents’ National Educational Union.

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Dawn Tull has been homeschooling her children using Charlotte Mason’s methods since 2009. Although earning an MS in Business Management has left her underqualified to manage her own household, she has slowly been accepting the fact her four children were born unique persons. After relocating their family numerous times, she and her husband Donnie, currently live near Knoxville, TN in the foothills of the Great Smoky Mountains. Researching and pursuing the truth is important to her and has given her a heart for supporting and encouraging other homeschool families. She enjoys studying and discussing Miss Mason’s philosophy with a local study group and taking advantage of the outdoors with a natural history club.

©2019 Dawn Tull

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